Radiographic Evaluation of Root Canal Fillings in a Selected Yemeni Population: A Retrospective Study.

Ahmed Madfa, Mohsen Al‑Hamzi, Fadhel Al‑Sanabani, Mohammed Saeed, Elham Senan


Aim: To assess the root canal filling quality performed by general dental practitioners in Yemen through radiographic evaluation. Materials and Methods: Four hundred fifty-five digital panoramic radiographs were selected from the archive of the Dental Health Center in Sana'a, Yemen. The final sample consisted of 221 patients, 685 teeth, and 977 root canals. The criteria for overall radiographic adequacy of root canal fillings were defined as the presence of adequate length, density and taper, and absence of iatrogenic errors (ledges, transportations and perforations). Chi-square test was used to determine statistical significance between different parameters. Results: This study considered only radiographic criteria for evaluation of the root canal fillings. The percentage of root canal fillings with adequate length, density and taper was 30.8%, 29.6% and 20.7%, respectively. Considering the incidence of iatrogenic errors, perforations were present in 12 root canals (1.2%), while the presence of transportations was observed in 20 root canals (2.0%). However, ledges were no detected in any root canals. Conclusion: The root canal filling quality performed by general dental practitioners in Yemen is poor.



Quality; endodontic; root canal filling; radiographic evaluation.


Friedman S. Expected outcome in the prevention and treatment of apical periodontitis. In: Essential endodontology. Örstavik D, Pitt Ford T. (Editors). 2nd ed. Oxford, UK: Blackwell Munksgaard Ltd; 2008. p 408-469.

Tchorz JP, Ganter PA, Woelber JP, Stampf S, Hellwig E, Al¬tenburger MJ. Evaluation of an improved endodontic teaching model: do preclinical exercises have an influence on the technical quality of root canal treatments? Int Endod J. 2014; 47: 410-15.

Gündüz K, Avsever H, Orhan K, Demirkaya K. Cross-sectional evaluation of the periapical status as related to quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations in a rural adult male population of Turkey. BMC Oral Health. 2011; 11:20.

Afridi JI, Ehsan A, Malik A. Comparison of root canal treatment quality performed by house surgeons and postgraduate students. PODJ. 2014; 34: 543-47.

Udoye CI, Sede MA, Jafarzadeh H, Abbott PV. A survey of endodontic practices among dentists in Nigeria. J Contemp Dent Pract. 2013; 14: 293-98.

Chakravarthy PK MJ. Radiographic assessment of quality of root fillings performed by undergraduate students in a Malaysian Dental School. Saudi Endod J. 2013; 3:77-81.

Persić R, Kqiku L, Brumini G, Husetić M, Pezelj-Ribarić S, Brekalo Prso I, Städtler P. Difference in the periapical status of endodontically treated teeth between the samples of Croatian and Austrian adult patients. Croat Med J. 2011; 52: 672-678.

Tavares PB, Bonte E, Boukpessi T, Siqueira JF Jr, Lasfargues JJ. Prevalence of apical periodontitis in root canal-treated teeth from an urban French population: influence of the quality of root canal fillings and coronal restorations. J Endod. 2009; 35:810-13.

Al-Omari MA, Hazaa A, Haddad F. Frequency and distribution of root filled teeth and apical periodontitis in a Jordanian subpopulation. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011; 111:e59-65.

Elsayed RO, Abu-Bakr NH, Ibrahim YE. Quality of root canal treatment performed by undergraduate dental students at the University Of Khartoum, Sudan. Aust Endod J. 2011; 37:56-60.

Adebayo ET, Ahaji LE, Nnachetta RN, Nwankwo O, Akabogu-Okpeseyi N, Yaya MO, Nurudeen Ayoola Hussain NA. Technical quality of root canal fillings done in a Nigerian general dental clinic. BMC Oral Health. 2012; 12:42.

Unal GC, Kececi AD, Kaya BU, Tac AG. Quality of Root canal treatments done by undergraduate dental students. Eur J Dent. 2011, 5:324-30.

Kamberi B, Hoxha V, Stavileci M, Dragusha E, Kuçi A, Kqiku L. Prevalence of apical periodontitis and endodontic treatment in a Kosovar adult population. BMC Oral Health. 2011, 11:32.

Smadi L, Hammad M, and El-Ma’aita AM. Evaluation of the Quality of Root Canal Treatments Performed by Dental Undergraduates: Is There a Need to Review Preclinical Endodontic Courses? Am J Educ Res. 2015; 3: 1554-58.

European Society of Endodontology. Quality guidelines for endodontic treatment consensus report of the European Society of Endodontology. Int Endod J. 2006; 39: 921-30.

ENDODONTICS: Colleagues for Excellence. AAE Colleagues for Excellence Newsletter, 2009. Available

Moradi S, Gharechahi M. Quality of root canal obturation performed by senior undergraduate dental students. Iran Endod J. 2014; 9: 66-70.

Rafeek RN, Smith WA, Mankee MS, Coldero LG. Radiographic evaluation of the technical quality of root canal fillings performed by dental students Aust Endod J. 2012;38:64-9.

Ilgüy D, Ilgüy M, Fisekçioglu E, Ersan N, Tanalp J, Dölekoglu S. Assessment of root canal treatment outcomes performed by Turkish dental students: results after two years. J Dent Educ. 2013; 77: 502-509.

Madfa AA, Al-Sanabani FA, Al-washali HA. Attitude of Yemeni dental practitioners toward some technical aspects of endodontic treatment procedures. IOSR J Dent Med Sci. 2016; 15: 84-90.

Vukadinov T, Blažić L, Kantardžić I, Lainović T. Technical quality of root fillings performed by undergraduate students: a radiographic study. Sci World J. 2014 28; 2014:751274.

Román-Richon S, Faus-Matoses V, Alegre-Domingo T, Faus-Llácer VJ. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed ex vivo by dental students at Valencia University Medical and Dental School, Spain. Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2014;19:e93-7.

Peters LB, Lindeboom JA, Elst ME, Wesselink PR. Prevalence of apical periodontitis relative to endodontic treatment in an adult Dutch population: a repeated cross-sectional study. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Pathol Oral Radiol Endod. 2011; 111:523-28.

Ureyen Kaya B, Kececi AD, Guldas HE, Orhan H. A retrospective radiographic study of coronal-periapical status and root canal filling quality in a selected adult Turkish population. Med Princ Pract. 2013; 22: 334-39.

Ladeira DB, Cruz AD, Almeida SM, Bóscolo FN. Influence of the intergonial distance on image distortion in panoramic radiographs. Dentomaxillofac Radiol. 2012; 41: 417-21.

Moussa-Badran S, Roy B, Bessart du Parc AS, Bruyant M, Lefevre B, Maurin JC. Technical quality of root fillings performed by dental students at the dental teaching centre in Reims, France. Int Endod J. 2008; 41:679-84.

Tarim Ertas E, Ertas H, Sisman Y, Sagsen B, Er O. Radiographic assessment of the technical quality and periapical health of root-filled teeth performed by general practitioners in a Turkish subpopulation. Sci World J. 2013; 2013:514841.

Kojima K, Inamoto K, Nagamatsu K, Hara, Nakata K, Morita I, Nakagaki H, Nakamura H: Success rate of endodontic treatment of teeth with vital and non vital pulps. A meta-analysis. Oral Surg Oral Med Oral Path Oral Rad Endod. 2004; 97:95-9.

Bishop K, Dummer PM. A comparison of stainless steel Flexofiles and nickel-titanium NiTiFlex files during the shaping of simulated canals. Int Endod J. 1997; 30:25-34.

Barrieshi-Nusair KM, Al-Omari MA, Al-Hiyasat AS. Radiographic technical quality of root canal treatment performed by dental students at the Dental Teaching Center in Jordan. J Dent. 2004; 32: 301–7.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Corresponding: Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Roosevelt 1550, Concepción, Chile. Phone +56-41-2204232 - Fax +56-41-2243311- Mailbox 160-C, Concepción, Chile. E-mail