Anticariogenic properties and effects on periodontal structures of Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Narrative review

María Soledad Contreras

Abstract


Abstract: Introduction: Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni is a natural non-caloric sweetener, with more sweetness than sucrose, without adverse effects, which has demonstrated to have multiples benefits to the systemic health and recently to the oral health. This review’s objective is to describe anti-cariogenic and anti-periodontophatics properties of its extracts. Results: Stevioside and rebaudioside A are the most important glycosides of the Stevia and none is cariogenic. In vitro researches have shown that Stevia extracts have anti-bacterial activity on Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus and Lactobacillus acidophilus, organisms that are closely related to the production and development of tooth decay. In vivo and in vitro it has been observed that the production of bacterial acids decrease attributing it a low acidogenic potential and a lesser effect of the demineralization of the enamel in comparison with others sweeteners. Furthermore, in vivo it has been proved an anti-plaque effect mainly due to a decrease in the production of bacterial insoluble polymers. These characteristics in combination with anti-inflammatory properties could result potentially effective in the treatment of periodontal diseases in significant numbers, as it has been observed in studies conducted in animals. Conclusion: Stevia presents properties that potentially are anti-caries and anti periodontal-diseases. However, in vivo studies are necessary to confirm these assumptions and provide a greater understanding of the mechanisms of action of this plant and the components involved. Notwithstanding, with the existing background, this sweetener can be postulated as a potential therapeutic complement in the odontological care, especially in patients that present base conditions such as obesity, diabetes and high blood pressure.

Keywords: "Stevia" [MeSH], "Sweetening agents" [MeSH], "Tooth decay" [MeSH], "Periodontal disease" [MeSH].

Propiedades anticariogénicas y efectos a nivel periodontal de Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni. Revisión narrativa.

Resumen: Introducción: Stevia rebaudiana bertoni es un edulcorante natural no calórico, con mayor dulzor que la sacarosa, sin efectos adversos, que ha demostrado tener múltiples beneficiosos para la salud sistémica y recientemente para la salud oral. El objetivo de esta revisión es describir propiedades anticariogénicas y antiperiodontopáticas de sus extractos. Resultados: Esteviósido y rebaudiósido A son los glicósidos más importantes de Stevia y ninguno es cariogénico. Estudios in vitro han demostrado que extractos de Stevia presentan actividad antibacteriana sobre Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sobrinus y Lactobacillus  acidophillus, organismos estrechamente relacionados en la producción y desarrollo de caries. In vivo e in vitro se ha observado que disminuye la producción de ácidos bacterianos atribuyéndosele un bajo potencial acidogénico y un menor efecto de desmineralización del esmalte en comparación con otros edulcorantes. Además,  in vivo se ha comprobado un efecto anti-placa principalmente debido a una disminución en la producción de polímeros insolubles bacterianos. Estas características, más sus propiedades antiinflamatorias y cicatrizantes, podrían resultar potencialmente efectivas en el tratamiento de enfermedades periodontales en cifras significativas, como se ha observado en estudios desarrollados en animales. Conclusión: Stevia presenta propiedades potencialmente anti-caries y anti-enfermedades periodontales. Sin embargo, son necesarios estudios in vivo que confirmen estos postulados y proporcionen una mayor comprensión de sus mecanismos de acción y de los componentes que intervienen. No obstante, con los antecedentes existentes, se puede postular a este edulcorante como un potencial complemento terapéutico en la atención odontológica, sobre todo en pacientes que presentan condiciones de base como obesidad, diabetes e hipertensión.

Palabras clave: Stevia, agentes endulzantes, caries dental, periodontitis.


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