Prevalence of early childhood caries in non-fluoridated rural areas of Chile.

Gerardo Espinoza-Espinoza, Patricia Muñoz-Millán, Carolina Vergara-González, Claudia Atala-Acevedo, Carlos Zaror

Abstract


Introduction: Early Childhood Caries (ECC) constitutes a serious public health issue worldwide, especially in communities without water fluoridation. Objectives: To assess the prevalence of ECC in children 2 and 3 years old from rural preeschools without access to water fluoridation. Methods: A cross-sectional study to community level was performed during 2012. The eligible population was children 2 and 3 years old from rural preschools in non-fluoridated areas located in the Regions of the Araucanía, Los Ríos and Los Lagos. Four calibrated researchers (ICC= 0.83) determined the prevalence of dental caries on the criteria proposed by the WHO. The data was analyzed using the statisticals, chi-square test, t-test and logistic regression models. Results: The sample was constituted by 587 children of whom 53.32% had 2 years old and 52.47 were girls. The prevalence of ECC was 51.62% with a dmft index average of 2.53. The Region with the most prevalence was Araucania with a 52.79%. The variables that showed association were age, IHO-S and prevision (p<0.05). Conclusion: The prevalence of ECC in non-fluoridated areas is high.


Keywords


Dental caries; prevalence; epidemiology; preschool.

References


American Academy of Pedodontics, American Academy of Pediatrics, Review Council, Council on Clinical Affairs. Policy on Early Childhood Caries (ECC): Classifications, Consequences, and Preventive Strategies. Reference Manual. 2014;37(6):15–6.

Colak H, Dülgergil CT, Dalli M, Hamidi MM. Early childhood caries update: A review of causes, diagnoses, and treatments. J Nat Sci Biol Med. 2013;4(1):29–38.

Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL). Perfil Epidemiológico. Santiago, Chile: MINSAL; 2007.

Hoffmeister L, Moya P, Vidal C, Benadof D. Factors associated with early childhood caries in Chile. Gac Sanit. 2016;30(1):59–62.

Arora A, Schwarz E, Blinkhorn AS. Risk factors for early childhood caries in disadvantaged populations. J Investig Clin Dent. 2011;2(4):223–8.

Gopal S, Chandrappa V, Kadidal U, Rayala C, Vegesna M. Prevalence and Predictors of Early Childhood Caries in 3- to 6-year-old South Indian Children--A Cross-sectional Descriptive Study. Oral Health Prev Dent. 2016;14(3):267–73.

Baggio S, Abarca M, Bodenmann P, Gehri M, Madrid C. Early childhood caries in Switzerland: a marker of social inequalities. BMC Oral Health. 2015;22:15–82.

Dogar F, Kruger E, Dyson K, Tennant M. Oral health of pre-school children in rural and remote Western Australia. Rural Remote Health. 2011;11(4):1869.

Corrêa-Faria P, Martins-Júnior PA, Vieira-Andrade RG, Marques LS, Ramos-Jorge ML. Factors associated with the development of early childhood caries among Brazilian preschoolers. Braz Oral Res. 2013;27(4):356–62.

Zaror C, Pineda P, Orellana JJ. Prevalencia de Caries Temprana de la Infancia y sus Factores Asociados en Niños Chilenos de 2 y 4 Años. Int J Odontostomat. 2011;5(2):171–7.

Silva RH, Castro RF, Cunha DC, Almeida CT, Bastos JR, Camargo LM. [Dental caries in a riverine community in Rondônia State, Amazon Region, Brazil, 2005-2006] Cad Saúde Pública. 2008;24(10):2347–53.

Instituto Nacional de Estadísticas (INE); Comision nacional del XVII CENSO de poblacion y VI de vivienda. CENSO 2002.Sintesis de resultados. Santiago, Chile: Empresa Periodística La Nación S.A.; 2003.

Iheozor-Ejiofor Z, Worthington HV, Walsh T, O'Malley L, Clarkson JE, Macey R, Alam R, Tugwell P, Welch V, Glenny AM. Water fluoridation for the prevention of dental caries. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2015;18(6):CD010856.

Muñoz MP, Espinoza EG, Nuñez G, Sanhueza CA. Disponibilidad de Flúor en Saliva y Biofilms en Escolares Expuestos a Leche o Agua Fluorurada. Int J Odontostomat. 2015;9(3):939–8.

von Elm E, Altman DG, Egger M, Pocock SJ, Gøtzsche PC, Vandenbroucke JP, STROBE Initiative. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies. J Clin Epidemiol. 2008;61(4):344–9.

Rodríguez MF, Leonardo SJ, Provoste PR, Uribe SE, Peigna GB. Prevalencia de caries temprana de la infancia en zona rural del sur de Chile, 2013. Ciencia Odontológica. 2013;10(2):97–104.

World Health Organization. Determinantes sociales y ambientales para el desarrollo de los niños y niñas desde el período del embarazo hasta los 5 años. 4th Ed. Geneva: World Health Organization; 1997.

Superintendencia de Salud. Oral health surveys: basic methods. Chile: Gobierno de Chile; 2016.

Hultquist AI, Bågesund M. Dentin caries risk indicators in 1-year-olds. A two year follow-up study. Acta Odontol Scand. 2016;14:1–7.

Masood M, Yusof N, Hassan MI, Jaafar N. Assessment of dental caries predictors in 6-year-old school children - results from 5-year retrospective cohort study. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:989.

Masumo R, Bardsen A, Mashoto K, Åstrøm AN. Prevalence and socio-behavioral influence of early childhood caries, ECC, and feeding habits among 6-36 months old children in Uganda and Tanzania. BMC Oral Health. 2012;26:12–24.

Warren JJ, Weber-Gasparoni K, Marshall TA, Drake DR, Dehkordi-Vakil F, Kolker JL, Dawson DV. Factors associated with dental caries experience in 1-year-old children. J Public Health Dent. 2008;68(2):70–5.

Mariño RJ, Onetto JE. Caries experience in urban and rural Chilean 3-year-olds. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1995;23(1):60–1.

Fan C, Wang W, Xu T, Zheng S. Risk factors of early childhood caries among children in Beijing: a case-control study. BMC Oral Health. 2016;16(1):98.

Leong PM, Gussy MG, Barrow SY, de Silva-Sanigorski A, Waters E. A systematic review of risk factors during first year of life for early childhood caries. Int J Paediatr Dent. 2013;23(4):235–50.

dos Santos Junior VE, de Sousa RM, Oliveira MC, de Caldas Junior AF, Rosenblatt A. Early childhood caries and its relationship with perinatal, socioeconomic and nutritional risks: a cross-sectional study. BMC Oral Health. 2014;14:47.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Corresponding: Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Roosevelt 1550, Concepción, Chile. Phone +56-41-2204232 - Fax +56-41-2243311- Mailbox 160-C, Concepción, Chile. E-mail journal@joralres.com.