CoCrMo alloy as biomaterial for bone reconstruction in oral and maxillofacial surgery: A scoping review.
AbstractBackground: Osseointegration allowed for a breakthrough in biomaterials and techniques and it has contributed to increased application of dental implants. However, insufficient bone level is a frequent problem and it creates an anatomically less favourable base for implant placement. The first surgical procedure should comprise the reconstruction of the alveolar bone height. CoCrMo alloys are nowadays considered as highly corrosion resistant and biocompatible materials in dentistry, and therefore has been suggested as a suitable biomaterial for guided bone regeneration and tissue engineering. Aim: To determine the use of CoCrMo alloy for implantable devices in oral and maxillofacial surgery and to discuss the potential of this alloy for bone regeneration and repair through a scoping review. Material and methods: The search was done by using various databases including PubMed, Thomson Reuters and Scopus. We selected English literature related to studies reporting the CoCrMo properties and manufacturing processes and findings related to bone-forming techniques. Data was compared qualitatively. Results: 90 studies were selected according to the inclusion criteria. We reported different manufacturing techniques and their advantages related to mechanical, chemical and biocompatible properties. Conclusion: Improved tissue reactions of CoCrMo implant devices can be acquired by the application of novel techniques and surface modifications. Moreover, several processes have demonstrated to improve the in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility of the CoCrMo alloy to promote the attachment, proliferation and guided differentiation of seeding cells.
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