Common toothpastes abrasives and methods of evaluating their abrasivity.

  • Saqib Ali Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
  • Imran Farooq Department of Biomedical Dental Sciences, College of Dentistry, Imam Abdulrahman Bin Faisal University, Dammam, Saudi Arabia.
  • Fazal Shahid Orthodontic Unit, School of Dental Science, University Sains Malaysia, Kota Bharu, Kelantan, Malaysia.
  • Umair Hassan Dental Resident, St Charles Hospital, Port Jefferson, NY 11777, United States.
  • Muhammad Sohail Zafar Department of Restorative Dentistry, College of Dentistry, Taibah University, Al Medina Al Munawara, Saudi Arabia. | Department of Dental Materials, Islamic International Dental College, Riphah International University, Islamabad, Pakistan.


1. Zafar MS, Ahmed N. Nanomechanical characterization of exfoliated and retained deciduous incisors. Technology and Health Care. 2014;22(6):785-93.
2. Zafar MS. A comparison of dental restorative materials and mineralized dental tissues for surface nanomechanical properties. Life Scie J. 2014;11(10s):19-24.
3. Nanci A. Ten Cate's oral histology : development, structure, and function. St. Louis, Mo; London: Mosby. 2012.
4. Zafar M, Khurshid Z, and Almas K. Oral tissue engine-ering progress and challenges. J Tissue Eng Regen Med. 2015;12(6):387-97.
5. Zafar MS, Ahmed N. Nano-mechanical evaluation of dental hard tissues using indentation technique. World Appl Sci J. 2013;28(10):1393-9.
6. Imfeld T. Dental erosion. definition, classification and links. Eur J Oral Sci. 1996;104(2):151-5.
7. Pindborg JJ. Cronic mechanical injuries. Pathology of the dental hard tissues. 1970;294-311.
8. Litonjua LA, Andreana S, Bush PJ, Tobias TS, and Cohen RE. Noncarious cervical lesions and abfractions: A re-evaluation. J Am Dent Assoc. 2003;134(7):845-50.
9. Dababneh R, Khouri A, and Addy M. Dentine hypersensitivity: Dentine hypersensitivity—an enigma? a review of terminology, mechanisms, aetiology and management. Br Dent J. 1999;187(11):606.
10. Ashcroft A, Joiner A. Tooth cleaning and tooth wear: A review. Proc Inst Mech Eng Part J. 2010;224(6):539-49.
11. Davis W, Winter P. The effect of abrasion on enamel and dentine after exposure to dietary acid. Br Dent J. 1980;148(11/12):253-6.
12. Azzopardi A, Bartlett D, Watson T, and Sherriff M. The measurement and prevention of erosion and abrasion. J Dent. 2001;29(6):395-400.
13. Eisenburger M, Shellis RP, and Addy M. Comparative study of wear of enamel induced by alternating and simultaneous combinations of abrasion and erosion in vitro. Caries Res. 2003;37(6):450-5.
14. Attin T, Buchalla W, Gollner M, and Hellwig E. Use of variable remineralization periods to improve the abrasion resistance of previously eroded enamel. Caries Res. 2000;34(1):48-52.
15. West NX. Dentine hypersensitivity: Preventive and therapeutic approaches to treatment. Periodontol 2000. 2008; 48(1):31-41.
16. Mankodi S, Berkowitz H, Durbin K, and Nelson B. Evaluation of the effects of brushing on the removal of dental plaque. J Clin Dent. 1998;9(3):57-60.
17. Lobene RR. Effect of dentifrices on tooth stains with controlled brushing. J Am Dent Assoc. 1968;77(4):849-55.
18. Claydon N, Moran J, Bosma M, Shirodaria S, Addy M, and Newcombe R. Clinical study to compare the effectiveness of a test whitening toothpaste with a commercial whitening toothpaste at inhibiting dental stain. J Clin Periodontol. 2004;31(12):1088-91.
19. Hefferren JJ. Historical view of dentifrice functionality methods. J Clin Dent. 1998;9(3):53-6.
20. Newbrun E. The use of sodium bicarbonate in oral hygiene products and practice. Compendium of continuing education in dentistry.(Jamesburg, N.J.: 1995).Supplement. 1997;18(21):S2—7; quz S45.
21. O’Donnell MD. Predicting bioactive glass properties from the molecular chemical composition: Glass transition temperature. Acta Biomaterialia. 2011;7(5):2264-9.
22. Winston AE, Brown R, Usen N, Ansaldi A. Sodium bicarbonate containing toothpaste. 1988.
23. Ullah R, Zafar MS. Oral and dental delivery of fluoride: A review. Fluoride. 2015;48(3):195-204.
24. Zafar MS, Ahmed N. Therapeutic roles of fluoride released from restorative dental materials. Fluoride. 2015;48(3):184-94.
25. Lehne RK, Winston AE. Abrasivity of sodium bicarbonate. Clin Prev Dent. 1983;5(1):17-8.
26. Hara AT, Turssi CP. Baking soda as an abrasive in toothpastes: Mechanism of action and safety and effectiveness considerations. J Am Dent Assoc. 2017;148(11):S27-33.
27. Collins L, Naeeni M, Schäfer F, Brignoli C, Schiavi A, Roberts J, Colgan P. The effect of a calcium carbonate/perlite toothpaste on the removal of extrinsic tooth stain in two weeks. Int Dent J. 2005;55(S3):179-82.
28. Kleinberg I. SensiStat. A new saliva-based composition for simple and effective treatment of dentinal sensitivity pain. Dent Today. 2002;21(12):42-7.
29. Otton JM, Lønborg JT, Boshell D, Feneley M, Hayen A, Sammel N, Sesel K, Bester L, McCrohon J. A method for coronary artery calcium scoring using contrastenhanced computed tomography. J Cardiovasc Comput Tomogr. 2012;6(1):37-44.
30. Watson CA. Visually clear toothpaste containing a synthetic precipitated hydrated silica. 1975.
31. O'mullane D, Kavanagh D, Ellwood R, Chesters R, Schafer F, Huntington E, and Jones P. A three-year clinical trial of a combination of trimetaphosphate and sodium fluoride in silica toothpastes. J Dent Res. 1997;76(11):1776-81.
32. Joiner A. The bleaching of teeth: A review of the literature. J Dent. 2006;34(7):412-9.
33. Gerlach RW, Barker ML, Sagel PA. Objective and subjective whitening response of two self-directed bleaching systems. Am J Dent. 2002;15 Spec No7A-12A.
34. Joiner A, Philpotts CJ, Alonso C, Ashcroft AT, Sygrove NJ. A novel optical approach to achieving tooth whitening. J Dent. 2008;368-14.
35. Smigel IE. Toothpaste for natural teeth as well as composite filling material. 1983.
36. Mayrand LP. Water-free toothpastes containing metaphos-phates, calcium carbonate, and mineral oil. 1969.
37. Vaara M, Jaakkola J. Sodium hexametaphosphate sensi-tizes pseudomonas aeruginosa, several other species of pseudo-monas, and escherichia coli to hydrophobic drugs. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 1989;33(10):1741-7.
38. Cordon M, Norfleet J. Calcium pyrophosphate abrasive system for dentifrice. 1976.
39. Zamataro C, Tenuta L, Cury J. Low-fluoride dentifrice and the effect of post-brushing rinsing on fluoride availability in saliva. Eur Arch Paediatr Dent. 2008;9(2):90-3.
40. Downs AJ. Chemistry of aluminium, gallium, indium and thallium. Springer Science & Business Media. 1993.
41. Andlaw R, Tucker G. A dentifrice containing 0.8 per cent sodium monofluorophosphate in an aluminium oxide trihydrate base. A 3-year clinical trial. Brit Dent J. 1975;138(11):426-32.
How to Cite
ALI, Saqib et al. Common toothpastes abrasives and methods of evaluating their abrasivity.. Journal of Oral Research, [S.l.], p. 9-15, july 2020. ISSN 0719-2479. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 28 sep. 2023. doi: