Evaluation of the extent of interstitial fibrosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal oral mucosa and oral epithelial dysplasia.

Lilaj Yañez, Claudio Peralta, Carolina Somarriva, Alejandra Fernández


Objective: To evaluate the extent of interstitial fibrosis in samples of normal oral mucosa (NOM), oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Materials and method: Descriptive study. Eighteen samples of NOM, 15 samples of OED, and 13 samples of OSCC were analyzed; all stained with Masson’s trichrome stain. The areas of greatest fibrosis underlying the normal, dysplastic, and malignant neoplastic oral epithelium were identified in order to determine the extent of interstitial fibrosis. Interstitial fibrosis was classified according to its proportion in the total image, being 0 (without fibrosis), +1 (1-25%), 2+ (26-50%), 3+ (51-75%) and +4 (76-100%). Variables were analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test and Dunn’s Pairwise post-hoc test. Results: The samples of NOM and OED did not present interstitial fibrosis (type 0) in the majority of the cases respectively. OSCC samples were characterized by an extension of type 2+ interstitial fibrosis in 45% of all cases of OSCC. The extent of interstitial fibrosis was different between NOM and OSCC (p<0.001), and between OED and OSCC (p<0.001). Conclusion: The extent of interstitial fibrosis is directly proportional to the malignization of the analyzed samples, being an adequate marker for OSCC.


Oral neoplasia; tumor microenvironment; fibrosis.


Tao L, Huang G, Song H, Chen Y, Chen L. Cancer associated fibroblasts: An essential role in the tumor microenvironment. Oncol Lett. 2017;14(3):2611–20.

Kalluri R. The biology and function of fibroblasts in cancer. Nat Rev Cancer. 2016;16(9):582–98.

Raimondi AR, Molinolo AA, Itoiz ME. Fibroblast growth factor-2 expression during experimental oral carcinogenesis. Its possible role in the induction of pre-malignant fibrosis. J Oral Pathol Med. 2006;35(4):212–7.

Lao XM, Liang YJ, Su YX, Zhang SE, Zhou XI, Liao GQ. Distribution and significance of interstitial fibrosis and stroma-infiltrating B cells in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Oncol Lett. 2016;11(3):2027–34.

Martínez C, Hernández M, Martínez B, Adorno D. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile]. Rev Med Chil. 2016;144(2):169–74.

Pereira Jdos S, Carvalho Mde V, Henriques AC, de Queiroz Camara TH, Miguel MC, Freitas Rde A. Epidemiology and correlation of the clinicopathological features in oral epithelial dysplasia: analysis of 173 cases. Ann Diagn Pathol. 2011;15(2):98–102.

Riera P, Martínez B. [Morbidity and mortality for oral and pharyngeal cancer in Chile]. Rev Med Chil. 2005;133(5):555–63.

Kumar M, Nanavati R, Modi TG, Dobariya C. Oral cancer: Etiology and risk factors: A review. J Cancer Res Ther. 2016;12(2):458–63.

Nayak S, Goel MM, Makker A, Bhatia V, Chandra S, Kumar S, Agarwal SP. Fibroblast Growth Factor (FGF-2) and Its Receptors FGFR-2 and FGFR-3 May Be Putative Biomarkers of Malignant Transformation of Potentially Malignant Oral Lesions into Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0138801.

Lin NN, Wang P, Zhao D, Zhang FJ, Yang K, Chen R. Significance of oral cancer-associated fibroblasts in angiogenesis, lymphangiogenesis, and tumor invasion in oral squamous cell carcinoma. J Oral Pathol Med. 2017;46(1):21–30.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Corresponding: Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Roosevelt 1550, Concepción, Chile. Phone +56-41-2204232 - E-mail journal@joralres.com.