Relationship between overall child development and caries severity in Chilean three-year-old preschool children.

Marcela Mufdi, Loreto Núñez, Juan Pablo Ochoa, Gloria Mejía

Abstract


Objective: To determine the relationship between caries and overall child development in three-year-old children in the cities of Linares and Talca, Chile, 2014-2015. Method: Cross-sectional study conducted in a sample of 170 preschool children attending daycare centers in Linares and Talca. Four dimensions of child development (language, cognition, motor skills and socio-emotional development) were qualitatively assessed using the child learning and development test (TADI, for its acronym in Spanish). Nutritional development was calculated with the weight/height index. Caries history was assessed by the dmft index and compromised tissue quantification. Statistical analysis was performed using Pearson's rho, ANOVA, Student’s t-test, Fisher’s exact test and Kruskal-Wallis. Results: A negative linear correlation was observed between dmft and total TADI score (r=- 0.20, p=0.00), and the dimensions of language (r=- 0.19, p=0.01), cognition (r=-0.18, p=0.02) and socio-emotional development (r=- 0.21, p=0.01). Preschoolers with a dmft of >6.5 had a lower average TADI score than those with a dmft of <2.6 (p=0.009). There were no statistically significant differences in the level of compromised tissue quantification between preschool children with normal and altered development. No statistically significant association between dmft and nutritional development was found. Conclusion: A relationship between caries severity and overall child development in three-year-old preschool children was observed. Longitudinal studies are required to assess causality.


Keywords


Dental Caries; Growth and Development; Child Development; Child, Preschool.

References


Organización Mundial de la Salud (OMS); UNICEF. El desarrollo del niño en la primera infancia y la discapacidad: Un documento de debate. Malta: OMS; 2013.

Pardo M, Gómez M, Edwards M. Test de Aprendizaje y Desarrollo Infantil (TADI). Para niñas y niños de 3 meses a 6 años. Presentación de un nuevo instrumento chileno para evaluar el desarrollo infantil (Estado de avance). Serie reflexiones Infancia y adolescencia n.14. Chile. Chile: UNICEF-Chile; 2013.

Walker SP, Wachs TD, Grantham-Mcgregor S, Black MM, Nelson CA, Huffman SL, Baker-Henningham H, Chang SM, Hamadani JD, Lozoff B, Gardner JMM, Powell CA, Rahman A, Richter L. Inequality in early childhood: risk and protective factors for early child development. Lancet. 2011;378(9799):1325–38.

Engle PL, Fernald L, Alderman H, Behrman J, O'Gara CH, Yousafzai A, de Mello MC, Hidrobo M, Ulkuer N, Ertem I, Iltus S. Global Child Development Steering Group. Strategies for reducing inequalities and improving developmental outcomes for young children in low-income and middle-income countries. Lancet. 2011;378(9799):1339–53.

Leyton B, Becerra C, Castillo C, Strain H, Santander S. Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL); Gobierno de Chile. Programa Nacional de Salud de la Infancia con Enfoque Integral. Santiago, Chile: Ed Valente; 2013.

UNICEF, Argentina. Determinantes sociales y ambientales para el desarrollo de los niños y niñas desde el período del embarazo hasta los 5 años. 1a Ed. Argentina: UNICEF; 2015.

Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL); Gobierno de Chile. Guía de Práctica Clínica No GES Salud Oral en Adolescentes de 10 a 19 años. Prevención, Diagnóstico y Tratamiento de Caries, 2013. Chile: MINSAL; 2013.

van Gemert-Schriks MC, van Amerongen EW, Aartman IH, Wennink JM, Ten Cate JM, de Soet JJ. The influence of dental caries on body growth in prepubertal children . Clin Oral Investig. 2011;15(2):141–9.

Alkarimi HA, Watt RG, Pikhart H, Sheiham A, Tsakos G. Dental caries and growth in school-age children. Pediatrics. 2014;133(3):e616–23.

Sheiham A. Dental caries affects body weight, growth and quality of life in pre-school children. Br Dent J. 2006;201(10):625–6.

Fitzsimons CP, Herbert J, Schouten M, Meijer OC, Lucassen PJ, Lightman S. Circadian and ultradian glucocorticoid rhythmicity: Implications for the effects of glucocorticoids on neural stem cells and adult hippocampal neurogenesis. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2016;41:44–58.

Holt K, Barzel R. Oral Health and Learning: When Children’s Health Suffers, So Does Their Ability to Learn. 3rd Ed. Washington, D.C: National Maternal and Child Oral Health Resource Center; 2013.

Núñez FL, Sanz BJ, Mejía LG. [Dental caries and early childhood development: a pilot study]. Rev Chil Pediatr. 2015;86(1):38–42.

Ministerio de Salud (MINSAL); Gobierno de Chile. Referencia OMS Para la Evaluación Antropométrica. Niñas y Niños Menores de 6 Años. Chile: Organización Panamericana de la Salud; 2006.

The World Health Organization (WHO) Oral health surveys: basic methods. 5th Ed. France: The World Health Organization (WHO); 2013.

Burt B, Eklund S. Dentistry, Dental Practice, and the Community. 6th Ed. USA: Elsevier Saunders; 2005.

Instituto Nacional de Estadisticas, Chile. (INE) Estratificación Socioeconómica en Encuestas de Hogares. Chile: Departamento de Estudios Sociales, INE; 2011.

Feitosa S, Colares V, Pinkham J. The psychosocial effects of severe caries in 4-year-old children in Recife, Pernambuco, Brazil. Cad Saude Publica. 2005;21(5):1550–6.

von Grebmer K, Bernstein J, de Waal A, Prasai N, Yin S, Yohannes Y. 2015 Global hunger index: Armed conflict and the challenge of hunger. Bonn, Washington, DC, and Dublin: Welthungerhilfe, International Food Policy Research Institute, and Concern Worldwide; 2015.

Benzian H, Monse B, Heinrich-Weltzien R, Hobdell M, Mulder J, van Palenstein Helderman W. Untreated severe dental decay: a neglected determinant of low Body Mass Index in 12-year-old Filipino children. BMC Public Health. 2011;11:558.

Gaur S, Nayak R. Underweight in low socioeconomic status preschool children with severe early childhood caries. J Indian Soc Pedod Prev Dent. 2011;29(4):305–9.

Alkarimi HA, Watt RG, Pikhart H, Jawadi AH, Sheiham A, Tsakos G. Impact of treating dental caries on schoolchildren's anthropometric, dental, satisfaction and appetite outcomes: a randomized controlled trial. BMC Public Health. 2012;12:706.

Seirawan H, Faust S, Mulligan R. The impact of oral health on the academic performance of disadvantaged children. Am J Public Health. 2012;102(9):1729–34.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Corresponding: Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Roosevelt 1550, Concepción, Chile. Phone +56-41-2204232 - Fax +56-41-2243311- Mailbox 160-C, Concepción, Chile. E-mail journal@joralres.com.