Fibroblast response to initial attachment and proliferation on titanium and zirconium surfaces.
AbstractIntroduction: In recent decades, dental implants have become one of the best options for comprehensive dental restoration; their placement is a multidisciplinary task that requires a solid understanding of biological, periodontal, surgical and prosthetic principles. Objective: The aim of this study was to quantify in vitro the adhesion and proliferation of human gingival fibroblasts’ (HGF) response on titanium (Ti) and zirconia (Zr) surfaces. Methodology: Samples of Ti and Zr were observed under atomic force microscopy (AFM). HGFs were inoculated in each sample to determine adhesion and cell proliferation. The MTT reagent was mixed with DMEM and inoculated in each plate; formazan was dissolved with dimethyl sulfoxide and analyzed at 540 nm in a microplate spectrophotometer. The test was performed with three independent experiments. Data were analyzed with Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests (Lilliefors), Kruskal-Wallis tests and Mann-Whitney test comparisons. Results: Topography of the Zr plates showed greater roughness (Ra= 0.39μm) than Ti (Ra= 0.049μm). Quantification of HGF adhesion was significantly higher (p˂0.05) in Ti, while proliferation showed no statistically significant differences between the groups. Conclusion: It is noteworthy that, even though Ti initially showed increased cell adhesion on the surface, after 24 h Zr samples showed similar proliferation; this demonstrates that both surfaces have a comparable biological response.
2. Anderson JM. Biological responses to materials. Annu Rev Mater Res. 2001; 31: 81–110.
3. Gómez-Florit M, Ramis JM, Xing R, Taxt-Lomolle S, Haugen HJ, Lynstadaas SP, Monjo M. Differential response of human gingival fibroblasts to titanium- and titanium-zirconium-modified surfaces. J Periodontal Res. 2013; 49(4): 425–36.
4. Chug A, Shukla S, Mahesh L, Jadwani S. Osseointegration-Molecular events at the bone-implant interface: A review. J Oral Maxillofac Surg Med Pathol. 2013; 25(1): 1–4.
5. Babu RSA, Ogle O. Tissue response: Biomaterials dental implants, and compromised osseous tissue. Dent Clin North Am. 2015; 59(2): 305–15.
6. Lee TJ, Ueno T, Nomura N, Wakabayashi N, Hanawa T. Titanium-zirconium binary alloy as dental implant material: analysis of the influence of compositional change on mechanical properties and in vitro biologic response. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2016; 31(3): 547-54.
7. Fage SW, Muris J, Jakobsen SS, Thyssen JP. Titanium: a review on exposure, release, penetration, allergy, epidemiologya, and clinical reactivity. Contact Dermatitis. 2016; 74(6): 323–45.
8. Velasco-Ortega E, Afonso-Rodriguez CA, Monsalve-Guil L, España-López A, Jiménez-Guerra A, Garzón I, Alaminos M, Gil FJ. Relevant aspects in the surface properties in titanium dental implants for the cellular viability. Mater Sci Eng. 2016; (C 64): 1–10.
9. Miller B, Terheyden H, , Purcz NM, Hertrampf K, Tabakov A, Behrens E, Wiltfang J. A comparison of biocompatibility and osseointegration of ceramic and titanium implants: An in vivo and in vitro study. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2012; (41): 638–45.
10. Altuna P, Lucas-Taulé E, Gargallo-Albiol J, Figueras-Álvarez O, Hernández-Alfaro F, Nart J. Clinical evidence on titanium–zirconium dental implants: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Oral Maxillofac Surg. 2016; 45(7): 842-50.
11. An N, Rausch-fan X, Wieland M, Matejka M, Andrukhov O, Schedle A. Initial attachment, subsequent cell proliferation/viability and gene expression of epithelial cells related to attachment and wound healing in response to different titanium surfaces. Dent Mater. 2012; 28(12): 1207–14.
12. Contreras RG, Adachi K, Yokote Y, Sakagami H, Hibino Y, Nakajima H, Shimada J. Quantification of enhanced osteoblastic adhesion to ultraviolet-treated titanium plate. In Vivo. 2010; (24): 519–23.
13. Bauer S, Schmuki P, Von der Mark K, Park J. Engineering biocompatible implant surfaces. Part I: Materials and surfaces. Prog Mater Sci. 2012; (58): 261–326.
14. Anil S, Anand PS, Alghamdi H, Jansen JA. Dental Implant Surface Enhancement and Osseointegration, Implant Dentistry-A Rapidly Evolving Practice. Croatia: InTech; 2011.
15. Kwon YD, Choi HJ, Lee H, Lee JW, Weber HP, Pae A. Cellular viability and genetic expression of human gingival fibroblasts to zirconia with enamel matrix derivative (Emdogain®). J Adv Prosthodont. 2014; 6(5): 406–14
16. Pae A, Lee H, Kim H-S Kwon, Y-D, Woo, Y-H. Attachment and growth behaviour of human gingival fibroblasts on titanium and zirconia ceramic surfaces. Biomed Mater. 2009; 4(2): 025005.
17. Yamano S, Ma AK, Shanti RM, Kim SW, Wada K, Sukotjo C. The influence of different implant materials on human gingival fibroblast morphology, proliferation, and gene expression. Int J Oral Maxillofac Implants. 2011; 26: 1247–55.
18. Esfahanizadeh N, Motalebi S, Daneshparvar N, Akhoundi, N, Bonakdar S. Morphology, proliferation, and gene expression of gingival fibroblasts on Laser-Lok, titanium, and zirconia surfaces. Lasers Med Sci. 2016; 31: 863-73.
19. Ueno T, Yamada M, Suzuki T, Minamikawa H, Sato N, Hori N, Takeuchi K, Hottoti M, Ogawa T: Enhancement of bonetitanium integration profile with UV photofunctionalized titanium in a gap healing model. Biomaterials. 2010; 31: 1546-57.
20. Iwasa F, Hori N, Minamikawa H, Ogawa T. Enhancement of osteoblast adhesion to UV-photofunctionalized titanium via an electrostatic mechanism. Biomaterials 2010; 31: 2717-27.
The copyright of all the articles published in the J Oral Res. belongs to the Universidad de Concepción, Chile. All information about theJ Oral Res. is licensed under Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 and must be cited correctly.