Relationship between body mass index, bone mineral density, and oral hygiene with periodontal disease in a Mexican elderly group

José Francisco Murrieta, Ricardo Gustavo García, Brenda Contreras, Remedios Guadalupe Valdez, María Lilia Juárez

Abstract


The aim of this study was to evaluate the relationship of body mass index (BMI), bone mineral density (BMD) and oral hygiene with periodontal disease (PD) in a group of elderly adults in Mexico City. Material and Methods: A cross-sectional study with a convenience sample of 151 elderly adults was conducted. Before applying the epidemiological survey, each subject was asked to sign an informed consent. Standardization for measuring Ramfjord’s Periodontal Disease Index (PDI), BMI, and Green and Vermilion’s OHI-S was carried out. Descriptive statistics and linear regression models were performed. Results: The 93.4% of the group had PD, 33.8% showed severe gingivitis and 20.5% mild gingivitis. A 28.5% five percent of the group had osteopenia and 18.5% had osteoporosis, being more common in people over 69 years. The 38.4% percent of the group was underweight and 53.0% had poor oral hygiene. Oral hygiene accounted for 63.1% of the PD variance (p=0.0001), figure that did not increase considerably by adding BMD and BMI variables to the regression model. Conclusion: The frequency of PD in this group of elderly adults was high and significantly associated with BMD, BMI, and mainly oral hygiene.


Keywords


Periodontal disease; osteoporosis; elderly; oral hygiene; body mass index.

References


Franco-Álvarez N, Ávila-Funes JA, Ruiz-Arreguí L, Gutiérrez-Robledo LM. Determinantes del riesgo de desnutrición en los adultos mayores de la comunidad: análisis secundario del estudio Salud, Bienestar y Envejecimiento (SABE) en México. Rev Panam Salud Pública. 2007; 22(6):369–75.

Darby I. Periodontal considerations in older individuals. Aust Dent J. 2015; 60:(1 Suppl): 14–9.

Renvert S, Persson R, Persson G. Tooth Loss and Periodontitis in Older Individuals: Results From the Swedish National Study on Aging and Care. J Periodontol. 2013; 84:1134-44.

AlJehani YA. Risk factors of periodontal disease: review of the literature. Int J Dent. 2014; 2014:182513.

Genco R, Borgnakke W. Risk factors for periodontal disease. Periodontol 2000. 2013; 62: 59–94.

Oppermann R, Haas A, Kuchenbecker C, Susin C. Epidemiology of periodontal diseases in adults from Latin America Periodontol 2000. 2015; 67: 13–33.

Mathur LK, Manohar B, Shankarapillai R, Pandya D. Obesity and periodontitis: A clinical study. J India Soc Periodontol. 2011; 15(3): 240-4.

Aranda L, García F, Alarcón M. Obesidad y enfermedad periodontal. Rev Mex Periodontol. 2012; III (3): 114-20.

Hernández C. Interrelación entre diabetes, obesidad y enfermedad periodontal. Rev Mex Periodontol. 2011; 2(1): 7-11.

Lohana M, Suragimath G, Abbayya K, Varma S, Zope S, Kale V. A Study to Assess and Correlate Osteoporosis and Periodontitis in Selected Population of Maharashtra. J Clin Diag Res. 2015; 9(6): ZC46-ZC50.

Konopka T, Dembowska E, Pietruska M, Dymalski P, Górska R. Periodontal status and selected parameters of oral condition of poles aged from 65 to 74 years. Przegl Epidemiol 2015; 69: 537–42.

Norderyd O, Henriksen B, Jansson H. Periodontal disease in Norwegian old-age pensioners. Gerodontology. 2012; 29: 4–8.

Cornejo M, Pérez G, Kenio-Costa L, Casals-Peidro E, Borrell C. Oral Health-Related Quality of Life in institutionalized elderly in Barcelona (Spain). Med Oral Patol Oral Cir Bucal. 2013; 18(2):e285-92.

Petelin M, Cotič J, Perkič K, Pavlič A. Oral health of the elderly living in residential homes in Slovenia. Gerodontology. 2012; 29(2):e447–e57

Suvan J, Petrie A, Moles DR, Nibali L, Patel K, Darbar U, Donos N, Tonetti M, D’Aiuto F. Body mass index as a predictive factor of periodontal therapy outcomes. J Dent Res. 2014; 93(1):49-54.

Gorman A, Kaye EK, Apovian C, Fung TT, Nunn M, García RI. Overweight and Obesity predict time to periodontal disease progression in men. J Clin Periodontol. 2012; 39(2):107-14.

Suvan JE, Petrie A, Nibali L, Darbar U, Rakmanee T, Donos N, D’Aiuto F. Association between overweight/obesity and increased risk of periodontitis. J Clin Periodontol. 2015; 42:733–9.

Pataro AL, Oliveira F, Cavalca S, Cortelli JR, Nogueira MH, Costa JE. Association between severity of body mass index and periodontal condition in women. Clin Oral Invest 2012; 16:727–34.

Rosales-Aujang E, Muñoz-Enciso JM, Arias-Ulloa R. Prevalencia de osteopenia y osteoporosis en mujeres posmenopáusicas y su relación con factores de riesgo. Ginecol Obstet Mex. 2014; 82:223-8.

Henriques PS, Neto AM. Association Between Tooth Loss and Bone Mineral Density in Brazilian Postmenopausal Women. J Clin Med Res. 2011;3(3):118-23.

Russell S, Gordon S, Kaste L. Sex/gender differences in tooth loss and edentulism. Historical perspectives, biological factors, and sociologic reasons. Dent Clin North Am. 2013; 57: 317–37.

Juluri R, Prashanth E, Gopalakrishnan D, Kathariya R, Devanoorkar A, Viswanathan V, Romanos GE. Association of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease: A Double-Blind Case-Control Study. J Int Oral Health. 2015; 7(9):119-23.

Pepelassi E, Nicopoulou-Karayianni K, Archontopoulou AD, Mitsea A, Kavadella A, TsiklakisK K, Vrotsos I, Devlin H, Horne K. The relationship between osteoporosis and periodontitis in women aged 45-70 years. Oral Dis. 2012;18(4):353-9.

De Santana J, Suzart I, Pereira M, Seixas S, Lima M, Silva T, Dias L, Marques F. Outcome measurements in studies on the association between osteoporosis and periodontal disease. J Periodontol. 2010; 81:1773-80.

Tak I, Shin M, Kweon S, Nam H, Cauley J, Kim O, Kim Y, Chung H, Kim O. The association between periodontal disease, tooth loss and bone mineral density in a Korean population. J Clin Periodontol. 2014; 41: 1139–44.

Devlin H. Identification of the risk for osteoporosis in dental patients. Dent Clin North Am. 2012; 56(4):847-61.

Gomes PL, Pinto AM. Association Between Tooth Loss and Bone Mineral Density in Brazilian Postmenopausal Women. J Clin Med Res. 2011;3(3):118-23.

Juluri R, PrashanthE, Gopalakrishnan D, Kathariya R, Devanoorkar A, Viswanathan V, Romanos GE. Association of Postmenopausal Osteoporosis and Periodontal Disease: A Double-Blind Case-Control Study. J Int Oral Health. 2015;7(9):119-23.

Ramsay S, Whincup P, Watt R, Tsakos G, Papacosta A, Lennon L, Wannamethee S. Burden of poor oral health in older age: findings from a population-based study of older British men. BMJ Open. 2015; 5: 1-8.

van Der Weijden F, Slot DE. Oral hygiene in the prevention of periodontal diseases: the evidence. Periodontology 2000. (2011), 55: 104–23.

Hopcraft MS, Morgan MV, Satur JG, Wright FA, Darby IB. Oral hygiene and periodontal disease in Victorian nursing homes. Gerodontology. (2012); 29: e220–e228.

Cardentey J, Trujillo PE, Silva AM, Sixto M, Crespo CL. Estado de salud bucal de la población geriátrica perteneciente a la Clínica Ormani Arenado. Rev Cienc Méd. 2011; 15(2): 76-86.

Saarela R, Soini H, Muurinen S, Suominen M, Pitkälä K. Oral hygiene and associated factors among frail older assisted living residents. Spec Care Dentist. 2013; 33(2): 56-61.


Full Text: PDF

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Corresponding: Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Roosevelt 1550, Concepción, Chile. Phone +56-41-2204232 - Fax +56-41-2243311- Mailbox 160-C, Concepción, Chile. E-mail journal@joralres.com.