Transcultural adaptation and reliability of the spanish version of a questionnaire of oral hygiene advice given by dentists in Chile.

Ilze Maldupa, Jaime Aguila, Pablo Toloza, Sergio Uribe


Aim: To adapt and evaluate validity-reliability the spanish version of the  questionnaire  for oral hygiene advice given by dentist in Chile.

Materials and methods: Validation study conducted according COSMIN recommendations. The original questionnaire in english was adapted to spanish by translation, back translation, expert review and pilot test sample of 56 dentists. The instrument consisted of 3 sections: recommendations for oral hygiene, relevance given to the delivery of oral hygiene instruction and training and experience in delivering oral hygiene recommendations. It was reapplied in 5 of them a week later. Reliability was measured by internal consistency (Cronbach's alpha), test-retest (Cohen's kappa and weighted kappa) and measurement error (limits of agreement, LdA). Content validity was evaluated by experts and construct validity through convergent validity (Pearson correlation).

Results: A good level of internal consistency that applies to 5 items (Cronbach's alpha = 0.73) was obtained. For items of nominal scale the Cohen kappa coefficient was 0.80 (95% CI = 0.64 to 0.95) and for ordinal items weighted kappa coefficient (linear weighting) was 0.76 (95% CI = 0.65 to 0.88). The difference between the scores calculated for the measurements was 1 standard deviation 2.35. 95% of the differences were between -5.7 to 3.7 (+/- 4.7 LdA = 1) and the variance of the total score was 29 to 41. A good level of convergent validity (Pearson correlation = 0.63) was obtained.

Conclusion:  The final questionnaire  obtained is valid and reliable for use in chilean dentists with a profile like those included in this study to identify and quantify the oral hygiene instruction they provide to patients. Future studies should assess the validity and reliability of this adaptation other spanish-speaking countries.


Questionnaires, Oral Hygiene, Translating, Validation of questionnaire.


Ministerio de Salud. Guía Clínica Salud Oral integral para niños y niñas de 6 años [Internet]. Santiago de Chile: MINSAL; 2013 [Acceso 21 de Octubre de 2014]. Disponible en:

Ministerio de Salud. Guía Clínica Salud Oral en Adolescentes de 10 a 19 años [Internet]. Santiago de Chile: MINSAL; 2014 [Acceso 21 de Octubre de 2014]. Disponible en:

Ministerio de Salud. Guía Clínica Salud Oral Integral de la Embarazada. Santiago: MINSAL, 2013 [Internet]. Santiago de Chile: MINSAL; 2013 [Acceso 21 de Octubre de 2014]. Disponible en:

Ministerio de Salud. Salud Oral Integral para Menores de 20 años en situación de Discapacidad que Requieren Cuidados Especiales en Odontología [Internet]. Santiago de Chile: MINSAL; 2012 [Acceso 21 de Octubre de 2014]. Disponible en:

Kay EJ, Locker D. Is dental health education effective? A systematic review of current evidence. Community Dent Oral Epidemiol. 1996; 24(4):231–5.

Morgan MZ, Verkroost S, Hunter L. Evidence-based prevention: a comparison of oral hygiene advice given by dental and dental care professional students. Int J Dent Hyg. 2013; 11(2):121-5.

British Association for the Study of Community Dentistry. Delivering Better Oral Health: An Evidence-Based Toolkit for Prevention. 2da ed. Londres: DOH.

Guillemin F, Bombardier C, Beaton D. Cross-cultural adaptation of health-related quality of life measures: literature review and proposed guidelines. J Clin Epidemiol. 1993; 46(12):1417–32.

Mokkink LB, Terwee CB, Patrick DL, Alonso J, Stratford PW, Knol DL, Bouter LM, de Vet HC. The COSMIN study reached international consensus on taxonomy, terminology, and definitions of measurement properties for health-related patient-reported outcomes. J Clin Epidemiol. 2010; 63(7):737–45.

Polit DF, Beck CT. The content validity index: are you sure you know what’s being reported? Critique and recommendations. Res Nurs Health. 2006; 29(5):489–97.

Ruiz B, Urzúa I, Cabello R, Rodríguez G, Espelid I. Validation of the Spanish version of the “Questionnaire on the treatment of approximal and occlusal caries.” Clin Oral Investig. 2013; 17(1):29–35.

Full Text: PDF


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 3.0 License.

Corresponding: Facultad de Odontología, Universidad de Concepción, Chile. Roosevelt 1550, Concepción, Chile. Phone +56-41-2204232 - Fax +56-41-2243311- Mailbox 160-C, Concepción, Chile. E-mail